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Mnemonics of Ophthalmology


bulletsRemember the refractive indices of ocular media with 8303 (from anterior to posterior)

cornea 1.38
aq humour 1.33
lens 1.40
vit humour 1.33

bulletsRemember the types of colour blindness with TuB PaR DoG




bulletsRemember the causes of lid retraction with 4 MP

4M= Myasthenia Gravis,Marcus Gunn jaw winkling syndrome,Myotonic causes like dystrophica myotonica.Metabolic cuses like uraemia,cirrhosis

4P=Perinauds syndrome,Parkinson's Disease/Progressive supranuclear palsy,Ptosis of other eye,Palsy (aberrant III crnaial nerve regeneration)

bulletsRemember content & veins draining the Cavernous Sinus with Rule of 3

3 Afferent veins: Sphenoparietal sinus (Vault veins), Supf Middle cerebral Vein (Brain), Ophthalmic vein (Orbit)
3 Efferent Veins: Superior petrosal sinus, Inferior Petrosal Sinus, Communicating vein to pterygoid plexus
3 Contents; Cranial Nerves (III,IV, V1,V2 & VI)
3 Areas Drain into it: Vault Bones, Brain (Cerebral Hemisphere), Orbit
3 Nerves: Motor(III,IV,VI),Sensory (V1,V2), Sympathetic

bulletsRemember the causes of pseudo tumor cerebri with " Idiopathic IDEA"


Infections-Otitis media,mastoiditis,viral infections etc

Drugs-Steroid withdrawl,Vitamin A intoxication,Nalidixic acid,amidarone,cyclosporin,minocycline

Endocrine-obese,amennorrheic woman of child bearing age, Hypoparathyroidism


bulletsRemember the causes of downbeat nystagmus with DoWNBEAT

Degeneration,Demyelination or Drugs (Lithium)

Wernicke's Encephalopathy

Neoplasm or paraneoplastic cerebeller degeneration

Brainstem disease (Syringomyelia)


Arnold-Chiari malformation

Trauma or Toxin

bulletsRemember angle structures with "I Can See Till Schwalbe's Line"

Iris root

Cilliary Body

Scleral spur

Trabecular Meshwork

Schwalbe's Line