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Broculizumab

Brolucizumab is a humanized single-chain antibody fragment that inhibits all isoforms of VEGF-A. It is the smallest of the anti-VEGF antibodies. Brolucizumab has a molecular weight of 26 kDa, compared with 48 kDa for ranibizumab, 115 kDa for aflibercept and 149 kDa for bevacizumab.

It is possible to concentrate brolucizumab up to 120 mg/mL, allowing the administration of 6 mg in a single 50-mL IVT injection. On a molar basis, 6 mg of brolucizumab equals approximately 12 times the 2.0-mg dose of aflibercept and 22 times the 0.5-mg dose of ranibizumab. Thus this drug has potential advantages in the treatment of ARMD. Assuming comparable half-life, higher molar doses of drug may be cleared more slowly from the eye, thus prolonging duration of action. Small molecular weight + higher molar doses + high drug concentration gradient between the vitreous and retina may support support superior drug distribution into the retina.

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eOphtha Archive : Popular Reads

25 Basic Questions from Residents to The Academic Directors of Three Premier Eye Care Institutes in India

Residency in ophidirectorthalmology is getting tougher by the day. During the tenure of residency, one is filled with innumerable questions which they feel someone could help them with. This collated questionnaire is an effort in that front. It has a few relevant and common questions which a resident in ophthalmology faces every day. And who better than the heads of education of the top three ophthalmology institutes of the country to answer these questions.  We have the three doyens of academics answering and guiding the basic queries during residency program.  Dr. Venkatesh Prajna (DR NPV), Chief of Medical Education of Aravind Eye Hospital & Post Graduate Institute of Ophthalmology; Dr. Avinash Pathengay (Dr. AP), Director of the GMRV campus and Director of Academics of LVPEI network and Dr. S. Meenakshi Swaminathan (Dr MS), Director of Academics at Sankara Nethralaya  are here to answer few of our queries. Read the interview

 

Authorship by Dr. Bipasha Mukharjee

AuthorshipPublications represent the three ‘R’s of modern times– recognition, respect and revenue, for anyone in the field of science and research. Authorship has become the currency of the current generation and a measure of one's status in the international scientific community. The number of papers published, the journals in which they are published, and their ranking on the list of authors are all crucial when it comes to promotions, funding and market value in the employment exchange. The ‘publish or perish’ culture has become our survival mantra. However, as Rennie, Deputy Editor of the Journal of the American Medical Association put it: “the coin of publication has two sides: credit and accountability.”  Read more...

 

How to Present a Scientific Paper by Dr. Jyotirmay Biswas

micpodiumIt's true that Computer is indeed a boon to a scientist making a presentation. Yet it is important that the presenter himself is adequately prepared for a good presentation. He needs to plan carefully and follow a few basic steps.
A good scientific presentation starts from the time a paper is conceived. If you want to present a good paper, ensure that the concept is good, well thought, designed aptly, results well analysed and valid conclusions are made. You should have your ground work done and write the draft of the paper, before embarking on a presentation. A well-written draft will provide the frame work of a good presentation. Read more.....

 

A(VAST)IN Saga by Dr. Bikramjit Pal & Dr. Parthpratim Dutta Majumder

Avastin SagaVascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A is a key mediator of angiogenesis. The discovery of VEGF-A, like many other major discoveries in medicine, happened partly by observations and partly by chance. Napoleone Ferrara and his team were working on a population of non-hormone-secreting cells from the anterior pituitary of cows. (1) One day Ferrara mixed some isolates from cultures of follicular cells with endothelial cells. Ferrara was surprised to see the rapidly proliferating endothelial cells started rapidly. Ferrara understood that the pituitary cells were secreting an angiogenic protein. With this observation, Ferrara worked on the isolation and cloning of this angiogenic protein. In 1989, Napoleone Ferrara and Hazel at Genentech laboratory were the first to isolate and clone vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Ferrara recalls, “I worked on the isolation of VEGF in my spare time during my first six months to a year at Genentech. Once we cloned VEGF in 1989, the company became interested and this became more and more my full time persuit.”  In 1993, Ferrara reported that inhibition of VEGF-induced angiogenesis by specific monoclonal antibodies led to dramatic suppression of the growth of a variety of tumors in vivo. Thus bevacizumab (Avastin), a recombinant humanized anti-VEGF monoclonal antibody was developed in Ferrara’s laboratory and Genentech, the company with which he used to work licensed ranibizumab for ophthalmic use (2).  Read more....

 

Doctor heal thyself! by Dr. Tandava Krishnan

One day, after a check-up I declared a baby to be out of danger. The baby had recently undergone LASER treatment for a vision threatening condition known as Retinopathy of prematurity(ROP) The parents who had been stoic and composed till then suddenly broke down. It was as if a burden had been lifted of their back. I knew exactly what they were going through. For we had been through a similar experience in the past...
One month before our son was due for delivery, we visited our obstetrician. An abdominal ultrasound scan was suggested by the doctor. When we were ushered into the scanning room, the first question asked by the Sonologist (London trained) was, “Are you a diabetic or a hypertensive?” A negative answer was met with a bizarre retort from the sonologist. “How can that be possible?  Usually you people tend to develop something by this stage of pregnancy!” She managed to sound both incredulous and disappointed in the same tone. With that introduction, she went about the motions of doing a scan. She found something on the scan that caught her attention. She asked us for the previous scans which we immediately supplied. Disappointment was writ large on her face when she realised that the previous scans were done elsewhere. She passed sneering comments on the capability of the doctors who had done the previous scans and summarily dismissed their reports as worthless. “It obviously does not have the details which I wanted. I cannot make any definitive conclusion based on the old scans as neither the scans nor the doctors who have done it are of  the standard I believe in. ” With that she explained to us that the baby had a finding called Cisterna magna with a higher risk of developing neurological impairment. Moreover, the baby seemed to be overweight. She asked us if we had got a “Triple test” done. We had not got the test done as we did not fall into any of the indications for the test. Read more.....